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Montana Ice Jam Awareness

River Ice Information and Links
 MIJAD Home   Ice Types and Processes   Jam Types   Monitoring   Ice Jams West of the Divide   Ice Jams East of the Divide
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Great Links! There is something you can do about repetitive ice jams before they start flooding your neighborhood. In some cases where a Benefit Cost Analysis proves favorable, your community may be eligible for a FEMA Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Grant for ice jam mitigation projects that could prevent or vastly reduce localized flooding. For ideas on mitigation projects, visit the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab at

Information about FEMA and their Mitigation Grants can be found at

You may also ask your local county or city Disaster and Emergency Services coordinator or you may contact Kent Atwood, the State Hazard Mitigation Officer for Montana at or 406-324-4782.

For information on flood insurance visit

Did you know...
Montana has the highest number of reported ice jams in the lower 48 states.
Montana has the highest number of ice jam related deaths in the lower 48 states.
Two-thirds of Montana's ice jams occur in February and March.

There are 1708 Montana ice events documented in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) Ice Jam Database. That is approximately 9% of the total for the continental United States! These ice events in Montana have been reported on 165 different streams and rivers and 207 different locations. Of those jams reported in the database, nearly two-thirds occur in the months of February and March; 20% of these events have occurred in February with 44% occurring in March.

Spring runoff causes the most common flood threats for Montana east of the divide, those threats being ice jamming and snowmelt flooding. Freeze-up jams occur when prolonged sub-freezing weather allows an ice cover to develop on a river or stream. Break-up jams occur when the freezing weather is followed by significant warming, allowing the ice to break free and flow downstream. Jams typically form as ice accumulates at obstacles such as bends in the rivers or bridge supports. Water can quickly back up behind the jam causing localized flooding. Jams can release very quickly, and flash flooding is often the result as the water stored behind the ice jam then rushes downstream. When snowmelt, rain or rain on snow occur in tandem with the breakup of river ice, the result is often more intense flooding.

Ice jams and ice formation in rivers and creeks can lead to flooding in western Montana starting as early as December. Freeze-up and break-up ice jams have been documented in the months of December, January and February. More extensive flooding results from a combination of ice jams and rain on snow runoff.

Snowmelt flooding occurs as warmer spring temperatures melt snow over the mountains and the runoff overfills creeks and rivers. Snowmelt flooding may be worsened by spring rains falling over the mountain snow pack adding to the water flowing into creeks and rivers.

Snowmelt and the breakup of river ice often occur in tandem. Ice jams respond to fluctuating river flows associated with snowmelt and, as a result, can intensify snowmelt flooding. The National Weather Service provides extensive information on snowpack conditions across the country. A wide array of ground, airborne and satellite observations are used to monitor snow conditions. Your local National Weather Service office routinely provides flood forecasts, whether or not they are related to snowmelt or ice jams.

More information may be obtained from your local National Weather Service Office...


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